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Kumru KARAMAN M.Sc. Student

Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

Yıldız Technical University


Use of Industrial Wastes as an Alternative Calcium Source in Glass-Ceramic Structure

Supervisor: Yasin Bozkurt Yılmaz, Assoc Prof. Dr. Buğra Çiçek

There is a constant consumption in the global and with this consumption, wastes arise. While this indicates the consumption and insufficiency of natural resources, it additionally causes problems consisting of waste storage and disposal. The pollution troubles caused by waste storage led to the idea that these wastes may be used as a resource. For this reason, sustainability research have received importance. Among these emerging wastes, solid wastes rich in calcium have an important place. Wastes rich in calcium can be listed as farm animals industry (bone ash, eggshells) wastes and a few seashells. Although these wastes are harmless to the environment while stored, they cause waste storage costs. The search for solutions to these cost and waste storage problems makes solid wastes rich in calcium attractive in terms of their use in sustainability research. Among the calcium-rich wastes, chicken eggshells are more appropriate to be used in sustainability research as they consume more in amount and are easily accessible. The use of chicken eggshells in Portland cement, wall tile production and printing papers as a high resolution and ink density enhancer has been tried and successful results have been obtained. [1][2][3][4]In this study, the use of calcium oxide from chicken egg waste as an aid to melting and viscosity enhancer instead of calcium carbonate raw material was investigated.

[1] Jaber, H. A., Mahdi, R. S., & Hassan, A. K. (2020). Influence of eggshell powder on the Portland cement mortar properties. Materials Today: Proceedings, 20, 391–396.

[2] Yerramala, Amarnath. (2014). Properties of concrete with eggshell powder as cement replacement. The Indian Concrete Journal. 88. 94-105.

[3] Freire, M. N., Sousa, S. J. G., & Holanda, J. N. F. (2008). Using eggshell waste in red wall tiles. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Waste and Resource Management, 161(1), 23–27.

[4]   Yoo, S., Hsieh, J. S., Zou, P., & Kokoszka, J. (2009). Utilization of calcium carbonate particles from eggshell waste as coating pigments for ink-jet printing paper. Bioresource Technology, 100(24), 6416–6421.


Cooking Behaviors and Cooking Surfaces

Advisor: Assoc Prof. Dr. Buğra Çiçek

Nutrition habits are influenced by many cultural, geographical, social and economic factors. Once the nutritional habits are examined, it also affects the cooking process and therefore the preference of the many equipment utilized in this process. Selection of the cooking equipment generally causes several problems and diseases. In our study, the nutritional habits of cultures and the cooking surfaces were approached from the perspective of engineering and medical sciences and research was carried out.


The Recovery of Cobalt and Lithium from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries and Use in Glass-Ceramic Structures

Advisor: Yasin Bozkurt Yılmaz, Assoc Prof. Dr. Buğra Çiçek

Increasing use of electronic devices will increase the consumption of batteries that provide the energy required for the operation of electronic batteries. the increase in battery consumption brings about a waste problem which will arise from batteries that have completed their life. Battery wastes are classified as hazardous and harmful to the environment because of the toxic metals it contains. There are various disposal methods such as landfill, stabilization and combustion of waste batteries. Pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods are most popular for the recovery of metals contained in batteries. Hydrometallurgical methods are leaching for recovery of metals with the aid of a solvent followed by precipitation for selective recovery. Pyrometallurgical processes can be explained because of the recovery of metals with the help of heat. Additionally, to pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processes, physical, chemical, thermal processes can also be applied during recovery processes to increase the efficiency of these processes and facilitate the operations [1][2][3][4]. In our study; lithium and cobalt are obtained from lithium-ion battery wastes, which are harmful to the environment, by selective recycling, and later their usability in glass-ceramic structures is investigated.

[1] Xu, J., Thomas, H. R., Francis, R. W., Lum, K. R., Wang, J., & Liang, B. (2008). A review of processes and technologies for the recycling of lithium-ion secondary batteries. Journal of Power Sources, 177(2),512–527.

[2] Bertuol, D.A., et al. Recovery of cobalt from spent lithium-ion batteries using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Waste Management (2016),

[3] Chen, L., Tang, X., Zhang, Y., Li, L., Zeng, Z., & Zhang, Y. (2011). Process for the recovery of cobalt oxalate from spent lithium-ion batteries. Hydrometallurgy, 108(1–2), 80–86.

[4] Li, L., Ge, J., Chen, R., Wu, F., Chen, S., & Zhang, X. (2010). Environmental friendly leaching reagent for cobalt and lithium recovery from spent lithium-ion batteries. Waste Management, 30(12),2615–2621.

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